Date of Award




Faculty Advisor

Jimenez, F. Agustin; Yeomans, Melinda


The acronym ACL, more commonly CCL, stands for the Anterior (Cranial) Cruciate Ligament; the word cruciate means "to cross over" or "form a cross". There are two cruciate ligaments in the knee: the anterior cruciate ligament and the caudal cruciate ligament. These fibrous ligaments located within the knee join the femur and the tibia together allowing the knee to function as a hinged joint. The most common orthopedic injury in dogs is a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. This ligament typically ruptures during daily activities due to non-traumatic degeneration of the cranial cruciate ligament over time. Cranial cruciate disease has turned the veterinary orthopedic medicine into a billion-dollar business. With a specialty being so profitable and in such high demand, one wonders why is there such a shortage of orthopedic veterinarians?