In 1980, one of the first female high school agriculture teachers opened the door to her classroom at Arthur High School, Arthur, Illinois. Since that time, the number of female high school agriculture teachers has grown significantly. A descriptive study was conducted to identify and describe the roles and challenges of female high school agricultural teachers employed in Illinois. The results of the study can be used as a preparation tool for those females who decide to pursue agricultural education as a career, and can be used to encourage more female students to enter this challenging career. This study also describes the demographics, background, and support given to female teachers of agriculture in Illinois prior to and after college. Almost half the current female high school agriculture teachers are under the age of 30, and 52% of these teachers are instructors of Agricultural Mechanization, a once male-dominated area of instruction.