Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Gupta, Lalit


This dissertation material provided in this work details the techniques that are developed to aid in the Classification of tumors, non-tumors, and dense masses in a Mammogram, certain characteristics such as texture in a mammographic image are used to identify the regions of interest as a part of classification. Pattern recognizing techniques such as nearest mean classifier and Support vector machine classifier are also used to classify the features. The initial stages include the processing of mammographic image to extract the relevant features that would be necessary for classification and during the final stage the features are classified using the pattern recognizing techniques mentioned above. The goal of this research work is to provide the Medical Experts and Researchers an effective method which would aid them in identifying the tumors, non-tumors, and dense masses in a mammogram. At first the breast region extraction is carried using the entire mammogram. The extraction is carried out by creating the masks and using those masks to extract the region of interest pertaining to the tumor. A chain code is employed to extract the various regions, the extracted regions could potentially be classified as tumors, non-tumors, and dense regions. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is employed to enhance the contrast of an image. After applying the adaptive histogram equalization for several times which will provide a saturated image which would contain only bright spots of the mammographic image which appear like dense regions of the mammogram. These dense masses could be potential tumors which would need treatment. Relevant Characteristics such as texture in the mammographic image are used for feature extraction by using the nearest mean and support vector machine classifier. A total of thirteen Haralick features are used to classify the three classes. Support vector machine classifier is used to classify two class problems and radial basis function (RBF) kernel is used to find the best possible (c and gamma) values. Results obtained in this research suggest the best classification accuracy was achieved by using the support vector machines for both Tumor vs Non-Tumor and Tumor vs Dense masses. The maximum accuracies achieved for the tumor and non-tumor is above 90 % and for the dense masses is 70.8% using 11 features for support vector machines. Support vector machines performed better than the nearest mean majority classifier in the classification of the classes. Various case studies were performed using two distinct datasets in which each dataset consisting of 24 patients’ data in two individual views. Each patient data will consist of both the cranio caudal view and medio lateral oblique views. From these views the region of interest which could possibly be a tumor, non-tumor, or a dense regions(mass).




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