Most mammalian cytoplasmic tRNAs contain ribothymidine (T) and pseudouridine (Ψ) at positions 54 and 55, respectively. However, some tRNAs contain Ψ at both positions. Several Ψ54-containing tRNAs function as primers in retroviral DNA synthesis. The Ψ54 of these tRNAs is produced by PUS10, which can also synthesize Ψ55. Two other enzymes, TRUB1 and TRUB2, can also produce Ψ55. By nearest-neighbor analyses of tRNAs treated with recombinant proteins and subcellular extracts of wild-type and specific Ψ55 synthase knockdown cells, we determined that while TRUB1, PUS10, and TRUB2 all have tRNA Ψ55 synthase activities, they have different tRNA structural requirements. Moreover, these activities are primarily present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria, respectively, suggesting a compartmentalization of Ψ55 synthase activity. TRUB1 produces the Ψ55 of most elongator tRNAs, but cytoplasmic PUS10 produces both Ψs of the tRNAs with Ψ54Ψ55. The nuclear isoform of PUS10 is catalytically inactive and specifically binds the unmodified U54U55 versions of Ψ54Ψ55-containing tRNAs, as well as the A54U55-containing tRNA

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