Date of Award
Master of Science
Additive manufacturing (AM) allows building complex shapes with high accuracy. The X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is one of the promising non-destructive evaluation techniques for the evaluation of subsurface defects in an additively manufactured component. Automatic defect detection and segmentation methods can assist part inspection for quality control. However, automatic detection and segmentation of defects in XCT data of AM possess challenges due to contrast, size, and appearance of defects. In this research different deep learning techniques have been applied on publicly available XCT image datasets of additively manufactured cobalt chrome samples produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). To assist the data labeling image processing techniques were applied which are median filtering, auto local thresholding using Bernsen’s algorithm, and contour detection. A convolutional neural network (CNN) based state-of-art object algorithm YOLOv5 was applied for defect detection. Defect segmentation in XCT slices was successfully achieved applying U-Net, a CNN-based network originally developed for biomedical image segmentation. Three different variants of YOLOv5 which are YOLOv5s, YOLOv5m, and YOLOV5l were implemented in this study. YOLOv5s achieved defect detection mean average precision (mAP) of 88.45 % at an intersection over union (IoU) threshold of 0.5. And mAP of 57.78% at IoU threshold 0.5 to 0.95 using YOLOv5M was achieved. Additionally, defect detection recall of 87.65% was achieved using YOLOv5s, whereas a precision of 71.61 % was found using YOLOv5l. YOLOv5 and U-Net show promising results for defect detection and segmentation respectively. Thus, it is found that deep learning techniques can improve the automatic defect detection and segmentation in XCT data of AM.
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