African Americans, currently over-represented among low SES groups, have been found to be among the most at risk groups for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Phenotypic expression, such as obesity, result from the combined effect of genetic inheritance and environmental influences. Environmental dynamics interact with individuals on micro, meso and ecto levels (Bronfrenbrenner, 1989), are diverse and cultural (Vygotsky, 1993) and are learned by individuals through modeling and observation (Bandura, 1989). Environmental factors such as parental influence and modeling, availability and accessibility of produce, sweetened drinks and fast foods, can contribute to or minimize the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and water has been shown to militate against the onset of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the study ‘Genetic Bottlenecks Impacting Genes Governing Food Responses in African Americans’ the author considers the genetic and environmental responses to the onset of obesity and Type II diabetes among African Americans. The author uses a culturally competent model for repeated traits *(P=μ+G+Ep+Et) to evaluate the genotype/phenotype of African Americans. This model incorporates the contribution of temporary and permanent cultural environmental factors of historical origin, related to food responses, predisposition, metabolism and ethnic adjusted mean values of physical assessment to examine if the environment/genotype variables are informative towards the type 2 diabetes expression among African Americans, and to assess the validity of BMI as a predictor of adiposity and/or obesity prevalence among non-European populations. The main goal was to evaluate the relationship between BMI, fat distribution/prediction, variation among phenotypes and assess their relationships to the obesity genotype and environmental influences affecting metabolism and food choice.
Johnson, Catrina, Corrichini, Robert, Becque, Daniel, Moon, Wanki, Ajuwon, Kola and Lightfoot, David A. "Food Preferences Survey in African Americans and West Africans: A Cultural Exploration of Agreement and Divergence in Attitudes in Food Environments and Food Responses." Atlas Journal of Biology 2019 (Dec 2019): 661–673. doi:10.5147/ajb.v0i0.197.