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Sustainable food production for a rapidly growing global population is a major challenge of this century. In order to meet the demand for food production, an additional land area of 2.7 to 4.9 Mha year -1 will be required for agriculture. However, one third of arable lands are already contaminated, therefore the use of polluted lands will have to feature highly in modern agriculture. The use of such lands comes however with additional challenges and suitable agrotechnological interventions are essential for ensuring the safety and sustainability of relevant production system. There are also other issues to consider such as, cost benefit analysis, the possible entry of pollutants into to the phytoproducts, certification and marketing of such products, in order to achieve a the large scale exploitation of polluted lands