The construction industry is one of the most dangerous sectors of the US economy. As such, the safety attitudes and climate within small (residential) contracting firms may play a role in providing a safe culture and working environment. The intent of this practitioner-based research study is to compare and determine if there is a difference in safety practices—based on documented field inspections and their related original number of violations observed by OSHA—between union residential carpentry contractors in the St. Louis area and:

1) non-union residential carpentry contractors in the St. Louis area;

2) non-union residential carpentry contractors across Missouri; and

3) non-union carpentry contractors in the four contiguous Right to Work (Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas) states to Missouri, solely under federal OSHA compliance.

Three separate T-tests (for independent samples) were utilized to measure the outcomes of the various groups observed