Since brain glucose hypometabolism is a feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression, lactate utilization as an energy source may become critical to maintaining central bioenergetics. We have previously shown that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) 42 stimulates glutamate release through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and hippocampal glutamate levels are elevated in the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that increased glutamate clearance contributes to elevated extracellular lactate levels through activation of the astrocyte neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS). We utilized an enzyme-based microelectrode array (MEA) selective for measuring basal and phasic extracellular hippocampal lactate in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Although basal lactate was similar, transient lactate release varied across hippocampal subregions with the CA1 > CA3 > dentate for both sexes. Local application of Aβ 42 stimulated lactate release throughout the hippocampus of male mice, but was localized to the CA1 of female mice. Coapplication with a nonselective glutamate or lactate transport inhibitor blocked these responses. Expression levels of SLC16A1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A, and B were elevated in female mice which may indicate compensatory mechanisms to upregulate lactate production, transport, and utilization. Enhancement of the ANLS by Aβ 42 -stimulated glutamate release during AD progression may contribute to bioenergetic dysfunction in AD.
Hascup, Erin R R., Sime, Lindsey N., Peck, Mackenzie R. and Hascup, Kevin. "Amyloid-B(42) stimulated hippocampal lactate release is coupled to glutamate uptake." Scientific Reports 12, No. 1 (Winter 2022): 2775. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-06637-2.