Aging is strongly related to energy metabolism, but the underlying processes and mechanisms are complex and incompletely understood. Restricting energy intake and reducing metabolic rate can slow the rate of aging and extend longevity, implying a reciprocal relationship between energy metabolism and life expectancy. However, increased energy expenditure has also been associated with improved health and longer life. In both experimental animals and humans, reduced body temperature has been related to extended longevity. However, recent findings on the function of thermogenic (brown or beige) adipose tissue produced intense interest in increasing the amount of energy expended for thermogenesis to prevent and/or treat obesity, improve metabolic health, and extend life. Evidence available to-date indicates that increasing adipose tissue thermogenesis by pharmacologic, environmental, or genetic interventions can indeed produce significant metabolic benefits, which are associated with improved chances for healthy aging and long life.



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