Using Illinois coal in transportation has varied environmental consequences. This study calculated the total CO2 emissions from gasoline and eight other vehicle propulsion methods (VPMs) involving Illinois coal. VPMs of Ultra Super Critical electrical cycle (USC), Integrated Gasification Combined electrical Cycle (IGCC), Pulverized coal in a Sub-Critical electrical cycle (PSC), and electricity from a hydrogen fuel cell emitted the lowest CO2. VPMs using Illinois coal to produce ethanol, butanol, and IGCC/ethanol emitted CO2 comparable to gasoline. The VPM of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel emitted the most CO2. It was concluded that energy efficiency and CO2 offset from agricultural growth and by-products were the most influential factors of CO2 emissions.
Starkey, Darin M., Mathias, James A. and Paul, Bradley C. "An Environmental Analysis of Illinois Coal Entry into the Transportation Market." Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 34, No. 1 (Nov 2011): 72-81. doi:10.1080/15567030903530574.