Degree Name

Master of Science

Department or Program

Communication Disorders and Sciences


Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie


The human voice is a tool that not only communicates ideas and feelings, but also expresses and elicits emotions. Since the age of Manual Garcia (1805-1906), the inventor of the laryngeal mirror, singers and voice teachers have discussed, argued and philosophized about the most efficient manner in which to train any voice to reach its optimum capability. Singing techniques and the subsequent voice qualities have been strongly divided by cultural and personal preferences. Empiricists carefully guarded their teaching methods and shunned ideas that any other fields might have anything worthwhile to contribute to voice instruction. Voice teachers have been slow to embrace the use of visual feedback that is generated by technological sources. A review of literature published since 1967 traces the trends of acceptance of assistive real-time technology in the voice studio.