Degree Name

Master of Science in Education

Department or Program



Porter, Jared M.


Previous research has consistently demonstrated that using an external focus of attention rather than an internal focus of attention enhances motor skill learning and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether using different focus of attention (i.e. internal or external) influenced pitching accuracy. It was hypothesized that highly skilled baseball pitchers utilizing an external focus of attention would display greater pitching accuracy when compared to trials performed following instructions that were designed to direct attention internally. Participants (N=11) completed 60 trials under internal and external conditions, 20 trials per day over a six day period for a total of 120 trials. A univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for absolute error and constant error. Results of this study did not support the experimental hypothesis, and findings were not consistent with the predictions of the constrained action hypothesis (Wulf et al., 2001).