In earlier debates on economic development, the agricultural sector’s role was somewhat controversial. While dualistic models highlighted the importance of agriculture, the mainstream literature placed a greater emphasis on the creation of a modern industrial sector. Soon agriculture disappeared from the mainstream development literature to re-emerge recently with a variety of multiple-sector growth models emphasizing the key role of agriculture and specifically technology in agriculture. This paper is an empirical cross-country analysis of agricultural technology’s role in economic development. Specifically, the hypothesis being tested is whether improvements in agricultural technology have a significant impact on long-run economic growth. The results indicate that agricultural modernization has a positive effect on both measures of economic growth and human development.