A performance characteristic of M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) receivers is the variance of the phase error between the received and recovered signal carriers. For binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) loops utilizing integrate and dump filters and operating in the linear region, closed-form solutions for this variance exist , . In this paper the variance is found by numerical methods for M > 4. For verification and to investigate operation in the nonlinear region, computer simulation and hardware modeling were used .
Kopp, Brian T. and Osborne, William P. "Phase Jitter in MPSK Carrier Tracking Loops: Analytical, Simulation and Laboratory Results." (Nov 1997).