Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Computer Science

First Advisor

Ahmed, Khaled

Second Advisor

Rahimi, Shahram


This study is dedicated to enhancing the effectiveness of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems, with a special emphasis on Arabic handwritten digit recognition. The choice to focus on Arabic handwritten digits is twofold: first, there has been relatively less research conducted in this area compared to its English counterparts; second, the recognition of Arabic handwritten digits presents more challenges due to the inherent similarities between different Arabic digits.OCR systems, engineered to decipher both printed and handwritten text, often face difficulties in accurately identifying low-quality or distorted handwritten text. The quality of the input image and the complexity of the text significantly influence their performance. However, data augmentation strategies can notably improve these systems' performance. These strategies generate new images that closely resemble the original ones, albeit with minor variations, thereby enriching the model's learning and enhancing its adaptability. The research found Conditional Variational Autoencoders (C-VAE) and Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (C-GAN) to be particularly effective in this context. These two generative models stand out due to their superior image generation and feature extraction capabilities. A significant contribution of the study has been the formulation of the Synthetic Image Evaluation Procedure, a systematic approach designed to evaluate and amplify the generative models' image generation abilities. This procedure facilitates the extraction of meaningful features, computation of the Fréchet Inception Distance (LFID) score, and supports hyper-parameter optimization and model modifications.




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