Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Tragoudas, Spyros

Second Advisor

Gupta, Lalit


This dissertation will focus on the forecasting and classification of time series. Specifically, the forecasting problem will focus on imbalanced time series (ITS) which contain a mix of a mix of low probability extreme observations and high probability normal observations. Two approaches are proposed to improve the forecasting of ITS. In the first approach proposed in chapter 2, an ITS will be modelled as a composition of normal and extreme observations, the input predictor variables and the associated forecast output will be combined into moving blocks, and the blocks will be categorized as extreme event (EE) or normal event (NE) blocks. Imbalance will be decreased by oversampling the minority EE blocks and undersampling the majority NE blocks using modifications of block bootstrapping and synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE). Convolution neural networks (CNNs) and long-short term memory (LSTMs) will be selected for forecast modelling. In the second approach described in chapter 3, which focuses on improving the forecasting accuracies LSTM models, a training strategy called Circular-Shift Circular Epoch Training (CSET), is proposed to preserve the natural ordering of observations in epochs during training without any attempt to balance the extreme and normal observations. The strategy will be universal because it could be applied to train LSTMs to forecast events in normal time series or in imbalanced time series in exactly the same manner. The CSET strategy will be formulated for both univariate and multivariate time series forecasting. The classification problem will focus on the classification event-related potential neural time series by exploiting information offered by the cone of influence (COI) of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The COI is a boundary that is superimposed on the wavelet scalogram to delineate the coefficients that are accurate from those that are inaccurate due to edge effects. The features derived from the inaccurate coefficients are, therefore, unreliable. It is hypothesized that the classifier performance would improve if unreliable features, which are outside the COI, are zeroed out, and the performance would improve even further if those features are cropped out completely. Two CNN multidomain models will be introduced to fuse the multichannel Z-scalograms and the V-scalograms. In the first multidomain model, referred to as the Z-CuboidNet, the input to the CNN will be generated by fusing the Z-scalograms of the multichannel ERPs into a frequency-time-spatial cuboid. In the second multidomain model, referred to as the V-MatrixNet, the CNN input will be formed by fusing the frequency-time vectors of the V-scalograms of the multichannel ERPs into a frequency-time-spatial matrix.

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