Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
The major challenge associated with saving energy in the pumping stations of the fluid transportation in the pipeline networks, especially the crude oil transportation for long-distance is drag forces. In other words, this grossly increases the drag form force and friction losses making fluids transport inside pipeline taken a long time to pass, that increases energy consumption and costs. Therefore, the effective solution to overcome these problems is added drag reduction materials (DRMs) with the main fluid using the drag reduction technique (DR). One of the most important drag reduction technique to enhance flow in the pipeline is an active drag reduction using DRMs. Where the DRMs can reduce drag forces in relatively small amounts part per million (ppm), as well as environment friendly. Thereby, the drag reduction enhancement is highly important in terms of fluid transportation in the many industrial applications. An experimental and mathematical study have been performed in the fully development flow to measure fluid characteristics and to evaluate %DR using various DRMs: polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles in pipeline network. The active drag reduction experiments have been conducted in the rotational disk apparatus (RDA) and in the closed-loop recirculation system (CLRS) using different solutions of DRMs: individual, binary, and triple at different Reynolds numbers (Re) and at different concentrations. The morphological tests have been done employing XDR, TEM and SEM techniques. Mathematical model was presented to validate the experimental results using the statistic softwareV6.2. The results have been displayed with complete explanation, analysis, and conclusions. The results show that the %DR increases with increasing the velocity (Re) and concentration for the most of DRMs solutions. Also, the results confirm that the use of nanoparticle in complex solutions is more effective than using nanoparticle individually within the same work condition. further, the new complex solutions were formed in a manner that can contribute significantly to increase drag reduction performance and enhance shear resistance of the DRMs. Finally, all microscopy techniques confirm the fact that complex solutions were effectively formed and homogenized within the main fluid.
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