Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Two studies were conducted to present two new theoretical constructs based on narcissistic personality and Daoist water-like personality research. Narcissistic group orientation (NGO) was developed to incorporate both the grandiose and vulnerable expressions of narcissism into a group-oriented social variable. NGO is pathological group orientation with two distinct expressions that share a common etiology in social identity monopolization. The conditions that promote social identity monopolization and ultimately increase the salience of the particular self-category, differ amongst the grandiose and vulnerable expressions of NGO. The grandiose expression increases salience of a particular self-category to facilitate opportunistic use for self-enhancement, while the vulnerable expression increases salience of a particular self-category to facilitate threat detection and avoidance. Water-like group orientation (WGO) was developed to provide a measure of secure in-group positivity which is in contrast to defensive in-group positivity. WGO is a prosocial group orientation that is based on the Daoist principle of wuwei (non-action) or underacting which is conceived here as a lack of desire for control. Study 1 aimed to provide support for the factor structure of the newly developed scales and provide evidence of validity. The results of confirmatory factor analyses in Study 1 and Study 2 supported a two-factor NGO model and a two-factor WGO model. The two-factor NGO model is made up of a grandiose narcissistic group orientation (GNGO) factor and a vulnerable narcissistic group orientation (VNGO) factor. WGO Factor 1 (WGOF1) is an in-group confidence and satisfaction factor, and WGO Factor 2 (WGOF2) is an out-group respect and altruism factor. Study 1 also gathered evidence of convergent validity for both the NGO and WGO constructs. Both GNGO and VNGO exhibited positive correlations with social dominance orientation and blind patriotism, and negligible correlations with constructive patriotism. WGOF1 exhibited positive correlations with social dominance orientation and blind patriotism, and a negligible correlation with constructive patriotism. WGOF2 exhibited negative correlations with social dominance orientation and blind patriotism, and a positive correlation with constructive patriotism. Study 2 sought to gather support for the factor structure of NGO and WGO once again and to examine the relationship between GNGO, VNGO, WGOF1, and WGOF2 with a multicomponent measure of in-group identification that includes solidarity, satisfaction, centrality, self-stereotyping, and in-group homogeneity. GNGO, VNGO, and WGOF1 were positively related to all five in-group identification components, while WGOF2 was unrelated to all five in-group identification components. The NGO and WGO scales may be used to study groups who are experiencing acute or ongoing intergroup conflict, intense scrutiny, or aggressive groups. These scales may be used to develop a greater understanding of group and environmental characteristics that lead to defensive in-group positivity.
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