Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Whaley, Rachel


Most institutional structures are organized along the lines of gender, including the economy, state, law, religion, politics (Lorber 1994) and sport, where they were historically and are presently dominated and defined by men. With that being said, we have not yet achieved gender equality. In a time, where there has been both progress and challenges to the conventional gender order, how do men and women construct their own gendered identities, manage their performances of gender, and understand masculinity and femininity in society?




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