Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Workforce Education and Development

First Advisor

Pense, Seburn


The purpose of this research study was to explore the relationship between learning styles, psychological types and multiple-choice standardized achievement examination performance of nurse aide students with typology being the gross indicator using a non-experimental, comparative and descriptive approach. The study sample included nurse aide students (N = 326) seeking nurse aide certification selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The participation rate for completed MBTI® inventory was 58.42% (N = 326). The learning styles and psychological types were measured against the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Form M in North American English. The multiple-choice standardized achievement examination performance of nurse aide students was determined by Illinois Nurse Aide Competency Examination (INACE) conducted in January 2017. All the research questions and hypotheses compared mean of overall test scores and means of overall test scores based on specific duty areas (i.e. communicating information, performing basic nursing skills, performing personal skills, performing basic restorative skills, providing mental health and social service needs, and providing for residents’ rights) between different groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The findings of the study indicated a statistically significant relationship between mean scores of nurse aide students with Sensing (S) and Intuition (N) learning preferences by perception on overall test performance and test performance based on specific duty areas of the INACE with the mean of nurse aide students with the Sensing (S) learning preference being numerically highest (M = 81.85) than Intuition (N) learning preference (M = 79.96%). Additionally, there were no statistically significant relationships between learning preferences by source of energy (Extraversion – E and Introversion – N), learning preferences by reaction to information or making decisions (Thinking – T and Feeling – F), learning preferences by preference to life style (Judging – J and Perceiving – P), learning preference combinations by orientation to energy and perception (IS, IN, ES, and EN), learning preference combinations by perception and attitude (SP, SJ, NP, and NJ), learning preference combinations by mental process (ST, SF, NF, and NT), and 16 psychological or personality types or learning approaches (ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ISTP, ISFP, INFP, INTP, ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, and ENTJ) and Illinois Nurse Aide Competency Examination (INACE) performance among nurse aide students. The findings suggested that students with Introversion (I), Sensing (S), Thinking (T), and Perceiving (P) learning preferences had better overall test score on the Illinois Nurse Aide Competency Examination (INACE). Further research with a larger sample is recommended. The findings from the study and review of literature will guide nurse aide trainers and students, improve Illinois Nurse Aide Competency Examination; and increase nurse aide students’ retention efforts by utilizing the MBTI® assessment tool along with understanding and implementing the underlying concepts. Keywords: Personality Type, Psychological Type, Academic Achievement, Academic Aptitude, Type Theory, Standardized MCQ Tests, Standardized Tests, Cognitive Attribute, Academic Success, Achievement Tests, Learning Styles, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®




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