We provide the first report of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Ranavirus (Rv) co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions. Using these data, we tested the hypothesis that Bd or Rv parasites facilitate co-infection, as assessed by parasite abundance or infection intensity within individual adult frogs. Co-infection occurred in 30% of stream-dwelling frogs; 65% were infected by Bd and 40% by Rv. Among terrestrial, direct-developing Pristimantis frogs 40% were infected by Bd, 35% by Rv, and 20% co-infected. In Telmatobius frogs harvested for the live-trade 49% were co-infected, 92% were infected by Bd, and 53% by Rv. Median Bd and Rv loads were similar in both wild (Bd = 101.2 Ze, Rv = 102.3 viral copies) and harvested frogs (Bd = 103.1 Ze, Rv = 102.7 viral copies). While neither parasite abundance nor infection intensity were associated with co-infection patterns in adults, these data did not include the most susceptible larval and metamorphic life stages. These findings suggest Rv distribution is global and that co-infection among these parasites may be common. These results raise conservation concerns, but greater testing is necessary to determine if parasite interactions increase amphibian vulnerability to secondary infections across differing life stages, and constitute a previously undetected threat to declining populations. Greater surveillance of parasite interactions may increase our capacity to contain and mitigate the impacts of these and other wildlife diseases.

Date created


File format


File size

36 Kb

Geographic coverage

Manu NP in Peru

Scientific names

Telmatobius marmoratus, Hypsiboas gladiator, Hypsiboas lanciformis, Pristimantis danae, Pristimantis fenestratus, Pristimantis lindae, Pristimantis pharangobates, Pristimantis platydactylus, Pristimantis reichlei, Pristimantis toftae, Rhinella manu


Amphibian conservation; emerging disease; disease spillover; South America; live trade; frogs