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The learning of the relations between discriminative stimuli, choice actions, and their outcomes can be characterized as conditional discriminative choice learning. Research shows that the technique of presenting unique outcomes for specific cued choices leads to faster and more accurate learning of such relations and has great potential to be developed into a training and pedagogical tool to help individuals with and without learning challenges better learn complex discrimination problems. We present a brief historical account of this technique, a theoretical and empirical analysis, and specific examples of the application of this training technique in everyday discrimination problems and in several traditional school subject areas. We conclude with the iteration that cognitive scientists and educational researchers need not overlook basic associative mechanisms that may be fundamental in subserving complex learning and memory processes.