We evaluated formation of simple symbolic categories from initial learning of specific dictated word-picture relations through emergence of untaught or derived relations. Participants were 10 individuals with severe intellectual and language limitations. Three experimental categories were constructed, each containing 1 spoken word (Set A), 1 photograph (Set B), and 1 visual-graphic “lexigram” (Set C). Exclusion-based learning procedures were used to teach first the 3 auditory-visual relations (A-B relations) and then the 3 visual-visual relations (B-C relations) for each category. Seven participants acquired these initial relations. The untaught relations C-B and A-C were then assessed to evaluate the emergence of symbolic categories. Participants demonstrated virtually errorfree performances on C-B and A-C derived relations. The study helps to define operationally a highly useful procedural path for systematic instruction in symbolic functioning for persons with intellectual and language disabilities associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.
Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; and McIlvane, William J.
"Exclusion Learning and Emergent Symbolic Category Formation in Individuals With Severe Language Impairments and Intellectual Disabilities,"
The Psychological Record: Vol. 59
, Article 3.
Available at: https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol59/iss2/3