Participants completed 5 classroom examinations during which the timing of knowledge of results (no feedback: Scantron form; delayed feedback: end-of-test, 24 hour delay; immediate feedback: educator, response form) and iterative responding (1 response, up to 4 responses) were manipulated. At the end of the semester, each participant completed a 100-item final examination which included 10 items randomly selected from each classroom examination, plus 50 entirely new items. Neither the source of feedback nor the number of responses permitted influenced performance on classroom examinations but both factors interacted significantly to enhance the final examination performance of participants provided with immediate feedback and iterative responding. The correction of initially inaccurate strategies by combining immediate feedback with iterative responding was not differentially effective as a function of information source: educator or the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF AT) form. For these participants, response identification accuracy, confidence ratings, and retention were higher and inaccurate perseverative responding was lower. Performance on the final examination permits the preliminary quantification of how immediate feedback coupled with iterative responding, when used during classroom examinations that contain items that will be repeated on a cumulative final examination, not only assesses student knowledge but also teaches in a manner that promotes the retention of course materials.
Brosvic, Gary M.; Epstein, Michael L.; Cook, Michael J.; and Dihoff, Roberta E.
"Efficacy of Error for the Correction of Initially Incorrect Assumptions and of Feedback for the Affirmation of Correct Responding: Learning in the Classroom,"
The Psychological Record: Vol. 55
, Article 4.
Available at: https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol55/iss3/4