Students completed 5 quizzes during the semester using response formats that provided no feedback (word-processed answer sheet, Scantron form), delayed feedback (end of test, 24 hours), or immediate feedback while answering each test item. Administered 2 weeks after students had completed the 5th quiz, the final examination consisted of 50 items, with 10 items randomly selected from each quiz. Scores on each quiz, time to complete each quiz, and average study time per quiz did not differ as a function of response format. Students demonstrated the highest recall, the most accurate identification of initial responses, the most confidence in their answers, and the least amount of perseverative incorrect responding on those final examination items that were originally responded to when immediate feedback was provided. These same students demonstrated less recall, less identification accuracy, lower confidence in their answers, and more perseverative incorrect responding on those final examination items that were originally responded to when either end of test or delayed feedback had been provided. Students' self-reports assessing how response format affected learning, retention, and confidence were consistent with quantitative outcomes. The present results support prior' demonstrations that combining immediate feedback with the opportunity to answer until correct not only assesses, but also teaches, in a manner that promotes the retention of course materials across the academic semester.
Dihoff, Roberta E.; Brosvic, Gary M.; and Epstein, Michael L.
"The Role of Feedback During Academic Testing: The Delay Retention Effect Revisited,"
The Psychological Record: Vol. 53
, Article 2.
Available at: https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol53/iss4/2