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A comprehensive science of behavior is concerned with two related, but nevertheless distinct, questions. The first question is "How is an organism's behavior functionally related to its environment?" The second question is "How do the organism's neural and hormonal systems mediate those functional relations?" Behavior analysis addresses the first question, whereas behavioral neuroscience addresses the second. The neural and hormonal information that behavioral neuroscience provides is important for a comprehensive science of behavior because the information enhances the possibilities for the prediction and control, rather than because it logically validates an explanation of behavior. Although cognitive psychology is ostensibly concerned with internal events, it reflects the influence of social and cultural mentalistic traditions more than the means by which neural and hormonal systems mediate functional relations