The present experiment examined the value of word diagrams on the concept learning of university students. All students learned the concept of classical conditioning by reading a lesson in which the concept was defined and illustrated through examples and nonexamples. A diagram group studied a lesson in which word diagrams graphically illustrated the conditioning process in each example. A nondiagram group studied the same lesson with the diagrams omitted. On a posttest students classified novel examples and nonexamples as such and explained their reasons for their classifications. Diagram-group students were better at classifying nonexamples and at providing the correct reasons for classifying examples than were nondiagram-group students. Half the students in the diagram group drew diagrams on the posttest and half did not. Diagram drawers performed better than did nondrawers on several measures.
Grant, Lyle K.
"Word Diagrams in Teaching Classical Conditioning,"
The Psychological Record: Vol. 52
, Article 1.
Available at: https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol52/iss2/1