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The current paper provides an overview of behavior-analytic approaches to self-awareness. Skinner (1974) argued that the phenomenon of self-awareness is produced, in large part, by those social contingencies that reinforce discrimination of the organism’s own behavior. This view of self-awareness is supported by a range of empirical studies that successfully established self-discrimination performances in both nonhuman and human subjects. Recent developments in basic, applied, and conceptual analyses are currently extending Skinner's behavior-analytic definition of self-awareness. The current paper focuses on a relational frame interpretation of human self-discrimination.