Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Jones, Eric


A common form of partial ostracism, information exclusion, can be an everyday experience for some people. This study examined the role of information exclusion on subsequent information sharing behaviors. After being included or excluded on information in a previous task, participants had the opportunity to share information on a second task. When faced with the decision of how much information to share, it was framed in one of three ways: an opportunity to gain belonging and self-esteem, a chance to exercise control and meaningful existence, or no framing at all. Results indicated that participants that were in the loop shared more information than participants that were out of the loop. However, there was no difference for task framing on information sharing. The results of the study also indicated that in-the-loop participants reported stronger fortification of the inclusionary cluster (belonging and self esteem) and provocation cluster (control and meaningful existence) of fundamental needs than out-of-the-loop participants. On the other hand, there was no difference for task framing on the fortification of fundamental needs.




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