Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Whaley, Gray


Historically, the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin has rested their identity on tribalism, self-determination, and connection to their land. Much of their history has been about their fight to maintain their identity as a people through struggling against the US government over land control through the various termination and restoration periods. As the Menominee tried to maintain their traditional ways, they often found themselves in conflict with mainstream values and culture. This paper discusses their history through the role of identity. Many Menominee found themselves becoming bicultural as a way to balance life both inside and outside of their indigenous culture.




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