Date of Award
Master of Science
Plant and Soil Science
Witrick, Katherine A
Made-in-transit (MIT) is a supply chain concept for the complete or partial manufacturing or production of perishable foods while being transported to the market. Fermented foods like yogurt are ideally suited for the MIT concept, due to the fermentation period required to produce it. The period required to transport the product from the manufacturing facility to the market should coincide with the time required for the fermentation process to be completed. A 33 factorial design was carried out looking at the fermentation temperature (25°C, 30°C, and 35°C), apple fiber concentration (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% v/w), and experimental treatment (vibration or no vibration to mimic that associated with transportation). Apple fiber was added to the milk matrices prior to fermentation to assist in the gel properties when the yogurt was being fermented under vibration conditions. Yogurt was manufactured using one of the three apple fiber conditions and then fermented under one of the three fermented temperatures for 48 hours before being shifted into a 4°C cold room to finalize the gelling process. The physical-chemical properties (titratable acidity, pH, whey syneresis, and texture analysis) were analyzed for all conditions. Samples were analyzed using three-way ANOVA. There were noticeable differences between the fermentation temperature and the experimental treatment on the physical-chemical attributes measured. The apple fiber had no impact. A total of 51 people participated in a hedonic testing study to look at the impact the fermentation temperature, apple concentration, and the experimental treatment had on the appearance, aroma, taste, and mouthfeel of the yogurt. Consumers found the MIT yogurt to be unacceptable based upon all attributes tested (appearance, aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel).
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