Date of Award
Master of Science
Plant and Soil Science
AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF JESSE MILLER, for the Master of Science degree in PLANT, SOIL, and AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, presented on May 13, 2016 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF STARTER FERTILIZER ON SOYBEAN INFESTED WITH FUSARIUM VIRULIFORME OR RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. Jason Bond Fusarium virguliforme (Aoki), the fungus that causes sudden death syndrome of soybeans (SDS), is prevalent in most of the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) production regions throughout the United States. Sudden death syndrome management has been limited to cultural practices and host resistance. Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) is a fungus responsible for pre-emergence and post emergence damping off. Control methods include seed treatments and cultural practices. Several companies have advocated the use of in-furrow starter fertilizers in soybean production. Promoting root growth and emergence are a couple of the alleged benefits. It is unknown if the increased fertility in the root zone may actually increase or decrease the severity of root or seedling diseases. An objective of this study is to determine if the starter fertilizers (2-6-16), (7-12-11), (3-10-13) Nachurs Alpine Solutions™ impacts seedling disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and soybean yield. A second objective is to determine if starter-fertilizer influences the incidence and severity of SDS and soybean yield. One trial was infested with R. solani at the rate of 0.9 g of inoculum/30.5 centimeters of row. A second trial was infested with F. virguliforme at the rate of 2.25 g/30.5 centimeters of row. Inoculum consisted of sterilized white sorghum inoculated with either pathogen. Plots were 3.04 meters wide by 6.1 meters in length with row spacing of 0.76 meters. Trials took place during the growing season of 2014 and 2015. In 2014, a randomized complete block design consisted of 4 treatments that were replicated 6 times and planted into 4 row plots. Treatments consisted of treated (Metalaxl™, Fluxapyroxad™, Pyraclostrobin™, and Imidacloprid™) or non-treated seed (‘Asgrow 4730’) combined with either fertilizer (2-6-16) or non-fertilizer. Across both trials, there were no seed treatment and fertilizer rate interactions. In the R. solani trial, stand counts were similar between the fertilizer and non-fertilizer treatments. Stand counts were higher when the seed treatment was used. There was no significant difference in soybean yield regardless of treatment. In the F. virguliforme trial, stand counts were reduced in the fertilizer treatment when compared to the non-fertilizer treatment. Foliar symptoms of SDS and soybean yield were not affected by treatment. In 2015, there were changes in treatment structure due to additions of fertilizer treatments 7-12-11 and 3-10-13. Seed treatments and randomized complete block design remained for 2015. Stand counts were higher in plots that received fertilizer treatments in the R. solani trial. Stand counts were lower in R. solani plots with treated seed. Yield was not influenced by seed treatment but was increased by 3-10-13 and 7-12-11 fertilizer treatments. For the F. virguliforme trial, reduced stand counts were found in the plots with seed treatments. Seed treatments did not influence yield. Fertilizer did not impact stand or yield. Foliar symptoms of SDS were not influenced by seed treatment or fertilizer.
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