Carbon nanotube (CNT)/metal-cluster-based composites are envisioned as new materials that possess unique electronic properties which may be utilized in a variety of future applications. Superparamagnetic behavior was reported for CNTs with Gd ions introduced into the CNT openings by internal loading with an aqueous GdCl3 chemical process. In the current work, the magnetic properties of the CNT/Gd composites were obtained by the joining and annealing of Gd metal and CNTs at 850 degrees C for 48 h. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis shows the presence of Gd intermingled with the CNT walls with maximum and average Gd concentrations of about 20% and 4% (by weight), respectively. The Gd clusters have a non-uniform distribution and are mostly concentrated at the ends of the CNTs. A ferromagnetic-type transition at TC ~ to 320K, accompanied by jump like change in magnetization and temperature hysteresis typical for the temperature induced first order phase transitions has been observed by magnetization measurements. It was found that Gd infused into the CNTs by the annealing results in a first order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at TC = 320K.
Quetz, Abdiel, Dubenko, Igor, Samanta, Tampas, Vinson, Herbert, Talapatra, Saikat, Ali, Naushad and Stadler, Shane. "Magnetic Properties and Phase Transitions of Gadolinium-infused Carbon Nanotubes." (May 2013).