Published in Tall, I. A., & Respondek, W. (2000). Normal forms, canonical forms, and invariants of single input nonlinear systems under feedback. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, v 2, 1625-1630. doi: 10.1109/CDC.2000.912094. ©2000 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.


We study the feedback group action on single-input nonlinear control systems. We follow an approach of Kang and Krener based on analysing, step by step, the action of homogeneous transformations on the homogeneous part of the system. We construct a dual normal form and dual invariants with respect to those obtained by Kang. We also propose a canonical form and show that two systems are equivalent via a formal feedback if and only if their canonical forms coincide. We give an explicit construction of transformations bringing the system to its normal, dual normal, and canonical form.