Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Workforce Education and Development

First Advisor



AN ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION OF Valerie D. Newberry, for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Workforce Education and Development, presented on June 2, 2009, at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. TITLE: EFFECTIVENESS OF A CLINICAL QUESTIONING ACTIVITY IN DEVELOPING CARDIAC SONOGRAPHY STUDENT LEARNING LEVELS MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. Marcia Anderson, Ph.D. The purpose of the study was to contribute to a better understanding of learning activities used in clinical education. In particular, this study aimed to investigate whether use of a question/answer (Q/A) activity in clinical learning promoted higher levels of learning. Results of this study will be beneficial to faculty in programs with a clinical component, clinical educators, employers, and to the students who participate in the programs. The two-fold problem addressed in this research study was (a) What is the level of student learning achieved with a Q/A clinical learning activity, as perceived by clinical instructors; and (b) is the students' perceived level of learning related to student characteristics? The study included students and clinical instructors from accredited cardiac sonography programs in the United States. Demographic data revealed the students were mostly female with a mean age of 30 and varying levels of education. Experts reviewed the Q/A activity for content validity and the level of Bloom's taxonomy. The instrument was revised based on their recommendations. Program directors in 53 programs were sent requests to participate in the study and nine programs had participants who agreed to be in the study. Participants were mailed the materials and asked to complete the Q/A assignment. Clinical instructors completed a teaching module prior to giving student scores for thinking levels. The demographic sheets, consents, and score sheets were mailed back and data analysis was completed. Findings of the study suggest the Q/A activity is successful at progressively increased means in the thinking scores of students. The teaching tutorial is adequate training for the clinical instructors on the levels of Bloom's taxonomy. The level of thinking score achieved is compared to the student's age, gender, and educational level with no statistically significant difference. Recommendations for practice, further research and instrumentation are discussed.




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