Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
This dissertation is a series of study on CEO turnover, succession, and compensation, which consists of three essays. In essay 1, I investigate how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) affects CEO tenure and the characteristics of CEO turnover. I do not find a significant relation between financial reporting and CEO turnover even though SOX enforces accurate financial reporting and personal responsibilities. However, I find SOX affects CEO turnover via the changes to corporate boards. I provide some evidence supporting the idea that intensified monitoring significantly reduces CEO tenure. Specifically, I find SOX significantly affects the relation between CEO tenure and the independence of the board. I find that the likelihood of forced CEO turnover is higher in the post-SOX period. I also document that intensified monitoring increases the likelihood of forced turnover, specifically, I find CEO power concentration, institutional ownership, negative news, and shareholder governance proposals significantly affect the odds of forced turnover. I also provide some evidence supporting the hypothesis that firm performance is inversely related to forced CEO turnover. I document that the average number of audit committee meetings significantly increased in the post-SOX period, and the interaction between the number of audit committee meetings and firm performance significantly increase the likelihood of forced CEO turnover. Overall, the results support the notion that SOX affects boards' decisions on CEO turnover. I do not find that the proportion of outside directors significantly affects the odds ratio of forced turnover, indicating outside dominated boards may not be effective in removing CEOs. Managerial discretion defines the working environment of a manager and could potentially affect a board's choice of a successor CEO. In essay 2, I hypothesize that boards tend to appoint younger (older) CEOs in firms with high (low) managerial discretion. I further propose that the relation between managerial discretion and successor CEO age may be moderated by the age of board members, the origin of the successor, and the successor's designated heir status. Using a sample of 629 successions occurring between 1994 and 2005, I find empirical evidence that supports my first hypothesis for the total sample and the sample of successions with voluntary turnover. Board age, successor origin, and the successor's designated heir status do not moderate the results for the total sample. However, I find that board member age and designated heir status moderate the relation between managerial discretion and CEO age following forced turnover. Following voluntary turnover, successor origin and designated heir status moderate the result. The above mentioned three board and CEO characteristics may either strengthen or weaken the link between managerial discretion and CEO age depending on how the incumbent CEO leaves the CEO position. In addition, several other factors also statistically affect boards' decisions regarding CEO age, including governance, CEO board tenure, and titles held by the successor. In essay 3, I examine the role of managerial discretion in setting CEO pay at succession. Using a sample of 656 successions from 1994-2005, I provide evidence that a successor CEO's pay level is positively and significantly associated with the level of managerial discretion. However, outside succession moderates the link between managerial discretion and pay level. I further find that the moderating effect of a successor's origin is contingent upon the bargaining power of the board of directors for the total and forced turnover samples. As for the pay structure of a successor, the results of the total sample and forced turnover subsample provide evidence that managerial discretion positively relates to the proportion of risk-based pay and outside succession has a moderating effect on this relation; and the moderating effect depends on the board bargaining power. As for the voluntary turnover sample, the pay structure of the new CEO is mainly determined by the pay structure of the predecessor, firm performance, and the board bargaining power. This study enriches existing research on managerial discretion and succession by linking CEO bargaining power at succession with the theory of managerial discretion.
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