Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Jacobs, Eric


The purpose of this study is to investigate an animal model of distress (conditioned suppression) to assess the effects of magnesium (MAG) and nicotinamide (B3) administration on recovery of anxiety-like behavior following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comorbid with TBI and both affects a victim’s ability to maintain daily activities and have a good quality of life. Administration of MAG decreases swelling of the brain considerably and lessens cell death. B3 is a neuroprotective precursor to NAD+ and enhances energy levels as well has help reduce free radicals after TBI. A conditioned suppression procedure is an established method for generating disruptive fearful anxiety-like responses in animals and these treatments may help to reduce anxiety responses.




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