Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Komarraju, Meera


Due to its negative relation with turnover and the associated costs, job stress is a growing concern within the healthcare industry. By surveying 461 employees of a large Midwestern healthcare system, the present study evaluated perceptions of citizenship pressure (perceived pressure to engage in extra-role job duties) and examined its relationship with job stress and turnover intentions. The sample consisted of direct and indirect patient care providers and was predominately White, females who worked full-time. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that job stress partially mediates the direct relationship between citizenship pressure and turnover intentions. Specifically, healthcare workers experience job stress and desire leaving positions that make them feel that simply fulfilling their formally prescribed job duties is not enough to be seen as a good employee. Drawing from the theoretical model of psychological resilience, the current study also examined whether employees’ level of trait mindfulness (tendency to focus on experiences without judgment) moderates the identified mediation. Findings from a first- and second-stage moderated mediation analysis suggested that trait mindfulness does not buffer the negative outcomes (i.e., job stress, turnover intentions) associated with citizenship pressure within the healthcare industry. Despite the non-significant results related to mindfulness, significant negative relationships were found between trait mindfulness and each key construct (i.e., citizenship pressure, job stress, turnover intentions). Such findings demonstrate the potential relevance of trait mindfulness in promoting employee resilience within the workplace. Results also contribute to the citizenship pressure literature and highlight the need for additional research, especially within the healthcare industry.




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