Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counseling, Quantitative Methods, and Special Education

First Advisor

Pender, Debra


Leaders in higher education institutions throughout the United States regard distance learning as an important part of their long-term strategic planning (Allen & Seaman, 2015). Counselor education and supervision training programs are following this trend as demonstrated by the increase of online programs being offered to train professional counselors (Renfro‐Michel, O'Halloran, & Delaney, 2010). Some studies have investigated how online supervision compares to in-person or face-to-face counselor training (e.g., Lenz, Oliver, & Nelson, 2011). However, little is known about counselor educators’ experiences of online group supervision. A phenomenological case study explored the counselor educators’ lived experiences of resistance during online group supervision in Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Program (CACREP) accredited programs. The results of the study identified four themes: the supervisory relationship matters, differences exist between online and face-to-face supervision, positionality and privilege influence resistance, and resistance is dynamic. The study’s findings could enhance the field’s understanding of resistance and expand on how to consider and approach resistance during online supervision.




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