Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Abnormal homeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ plays a deleterious role in muscle pathologies by triggering processes that lead to dysfunction and necrotic or apoptotic cell death. One pathology where there is significant Ca2+ induced cell damage is ischemia, which initiates further damage (also mediated by Ca2+) generated by the required treatment process of revascularization; namely ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacological agents used therapeutically for cell protection, especially for cardiac protection in ischemic heart diseases, have only directly targeted one of the elements regulating Ca2+ homeostasis, the L-type Ca2+ channels (calcium channel blockers). Other agents, like beta blockers, indirectly target various elements, including sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). However, there are no pharmacological agents that directly and specifically target these two crucial elements required for intracellular SR Ca2+ homeostasis. Dr. Julio A. Copello’s group has previously studied the cardioprotective agent CGP-37157 (CGP), a benzothiazepine (BZT) derivative of the benzodiazepine (BZD) clonazepam. CGP was previously thought to decrease intracellular SR Ca2+ by acting as a blocker of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (Omelchenko et al., 2003). They found, however, that CGP also activates RyRs and inhibits the SERCA, which could better explain the SR effects of the drug (Neumann et al., 2011). These results suggest that drugs inducing partial depletion of SR Ca2+ stores could provide cellular protection in stressful circumstances or processes. The aims of the dissertation were organized based on the two processes that cause damage to muscle cells during ischemia: ischemia and subsequent reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion injury) (Ibanez et al., 2015). Aim one and two focused on drug-protective action during the ischemic event, while aim three focused on drug protective action in the reperfusion (early post-ischemia) process. In the first Aim, experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that RyRs and/or SERCA could also be the target of i) Drugs with structural similarities to CGP (i.e., other BZTs and some BZDs) and ii) Drug known to confer cellular protection under stressful cellular conditions such as antiepileptic agents. We found that some BZTs (K201, CGP analog) and antiepileptic agents (Sipatrigine and Pimozide) demonstrated potential to prevent SR Ca2+ overload by inhibition of SERCA and, in some cases also by inducing mild activation of RyR channels. These results provided potential mechanisms of action for agents with cell protective action: targeting SERCA and preventing Ca2+ overload in pre-ischemia process. From the results of the first aim, K201 had the most significant effects in both SERCA inhibition and RyRs activation. Therefore, Aim 2 experiments focused on exploring with greater detail the action of the compound K201 on RyRs, SERCA and Ca2+ signaling. We found that K201 is a more potent SERCA blocker than RyR agonist and that SERCA inhibition remains under acidosis mimicking ischemic conditions. In Aim 3, the focus was on testing drugs with potential to prevent the overloaded SR from leaking Ca2+ (via RyRs) upon reperfusion. For that, we have examined various classes of organic polycationic agents in their ability to act as fast and reversible RyRs blockers. Currently, no agent with these characteristics is availableas a therapeutic or has been well defined for use as an experimental drug. The membrane permeable cation DHBP was identified as a potent RyR inhibitor with potential for rapid and transient inhibition of spontaneous SR Ca2+ release during reperfusion. In summary, we have defined the ability of some BZTs and antiepileptic agents (K201, CGP analog, Sipatrigine and Pimozide) to prevent/slow down SR Ca2+ overload by inhibition of SERCA, which may play an important role in their mechanisms of cell protection in ischemic events. In the case of BZT, these drugs may help their cause by producing mild activation of RyR2 channels, In addition, we have identify DHBP as a reversible and fast acting RyR inhibitor with potential as template for development of transient inhibitors of spontaneous SR Ca2+ release which may have significant protective action against injury during early reperfusion of the heart.
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