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The nearly conserved U54 of tRNA is mostly converted to a version of ribothymidine (T) in Bacteria and eukaryotes and to a version of pseudouridine (Ψ) in Archaea. Conserved U55 is nearly always modified to Ψ55 in all organisms. Orthologs of TrmA and TruB that produce T54 and Ψ55, respectively, in Bacteria and eukaryotes are absent in Archaea. Pus10 produces both Ψ54 and Ψ55 in Archaea. Pus10 orthologs are found in nearly all sequenced archaeal and most eukaryal genomes, but not in yeast and bacteria. This coincides with the presence of Ψ54 in most archaeal tRNAs and some animal tRNAs, but its absence from yeast and bacteria. Moreover, Ψ54 is found in several tRNAs that function as primers for retroviral DNA synthesis. Previously, no eukaryotic tRNA Ψ54 synthase had been identified. We show here that human Pus10 can produce Ψ54 in select tRNAs, including tRNA



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