Pus10 is a pseudouridine synthase present in Archaea and Eukarya, but not in Bacteria and yeast. It has been suggested that the human PUS10 (DOBI) gene is needed during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We analyzed the role of PUS10 in TRAIL-induced apoptosis by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and several indicators of apoptosis. We examined several TRAIL-sensitive cell lines and we also examined some resistant cell lines after treatment with cycloheximide. PUS10 is mainly present in the nucleus. Early during apoptosis, PUS10 translocates to mitochondria via CRM1-mediated export with the concurrent release of cytochrome c and SMAC. Caspase-3 is required for PUS10 translocation, which reciprocally amplifies the activity of caspase-3 through the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway. This suggests that in addition to cytoplasmic factors, nuclear factors also have a direct role in the major apoptosis pathways. However, p53 is not involved in TRAIL-induced PUS10 movement. The caspase-3-mediated movement of PUS10 and the release of mitochondrial contents enhancing caspase-3 activity creates a feedback amplification loop for caspase-3 action. Therefore, any defect in the movement or interactions of PUS10 would reduce the TRAIL sensitivity of tumor cells.



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