The Adult Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) typically has been administered to samples of college students, and previous researchers have not explored key demographic variables. In a large sample of community persons who were not in college (N = 215), significant differences were detected in Hope Scale scores across differing age groups and marital status. Specifically, hope was lower for the older cohort (age 54-65) and for those who were separated, divorced, or widowed. Comparative results between Hope and Satisfaction with Life measures indicate somewhat similar outcomes, except with age. These findings are discussed.
Bailey, Thomas C. and Snyder, C R.
"Satisfaction with Life and Hope : A Look at Age and Marital Status,"
The Psychological Record: Vol. 57
, Article 5.
Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/tpr/vol57/iss2/5