•  
  •  
 

Document Type

Article

Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to determine
whether exemplar training would readily facilitate the transformation
of function in accordance with symmetry. Sixteen children, aged
between 4 and 5 years, were employed across four experiments
(i.e., 4 children each in Experiments 1 to 4). In Experiment 1,
subjects were first trained to name two actions and two objects by
demonstrating listening, echoic, and tacting behaviors (e.g., hear
name -4 pOint to object, hear name -4 say name, see object -4 say
name, respectively). This name training served to establish that
each of the subjects could clearly discriminate the experimental
stimuli. Subjects were then trained in an action-object conditional
discrimination using the previously named actions and objects (e.g.,
when the experimenter waved, choosing a toy car was reinforced,
and when the experimenter clapped, choosing a doll was
reinforced). Subjects were then reexposed to the name training,
before exposure to a test for derived object-action symmetry
relations (e.g., experimenter presents toy car -t child. waves and
experimenter presents doll -4 child claps). Across subsequent
sessions, a multiple-baseline design was used to introduce
exemplar training (i.e., explicit symmetry training) for those subjects
who failed the symmetry test. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1,
except that the name retraining (between the conditional
discrimination training and symmetry test) was removed. Experiment
3 replicated Experiment 1, except that subjects were trained to tact
all of the actions and objects during conditional discrimination
training and symmetry testing. Experiment 4 replicated Experiment
1, except that the trained and tested relations were reversed (i.e.,
train object-action, test action-object relations). Across the four
experiments, 13 out of 16 subjects failed to show derived objectaction
(Experiments 1-3) or action-object (Experiment 4) symmetry
until they received explicit symmetry training. Overall, the data are
consistent with Relational Frame Theory.

Share

COinS