Date of Award
Master of Music
AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Ling-Yao Chang, for the Master of Music degree in Music Education, presented on 13 April 2010, at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. TITLE: Comparison of the Orff-Schulwerk Music Education Approach in the United States and Taiwan MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. Pamela Stover The Orff-Schulwerk approach is a common and popular approach in the United States and Taiwan. In this paper, this paper compares the music classes in the United States and Taiwan. If the music teachers can see the differences in music education between the two countries then they can think about their teaching and learn new strategies with what works in other countries. In addition, music educators can consider using the Orff-Schulwerk approach in the future. This study is a two-pronged approach to discover more about the implementation and attitudes toward the Orff-Schulwerk (music and movement education) approach of teaching in the United States and Taiwan. What are the teachers' and students' attitudes and thoughts about the Orff-Schulwerk approach? First, surveys for teachers and students using quantitative and qualitative response was given. Orff-Schulwerk teachers in Taiwan and America were given questionnaires by e-mail or in person. The questions were multiple choice, with space provided for additional comments. From these surveys, selected music teachers who were highly trained in the Orff-Schulwerk approach were viedo-taped while they were teaching grades 2-6. Target teachers in Taiwan and in the United States have studied at the Orff Institute or have additional Orff-Schulwerk teacher training. Teachers were asked about their preference for various Orff-Schulwerk, their attitudes in class and what they learned. Second, selected classes were video taped to observe the students' activities in Orff-Schulwerk music classes in both Taiwan and the United States. After the classes were video-taped, the students were given a survey in person. This was a paper and pencil Likert-scale short questionaire about their attitudes of different the Orff-Schulwerk elements. The results show that the Orff-Schulwerk teachers in America and Taiwan were similar in their teaching techniques. However, the students were different. Taiwanese students did not perform much or answer questions. In the fifth grade, Taiwanese students did more music composition, even though they liked composition less than playing musical games. American students were more active in class and liked to perform in class. The American classrooms that observed focused on playing the Orff instruments. Although both the Orff-Schulwerk was implimented in both countries, the differences observed were mostly cultureal differences and not a result of teaching techniques.
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