In data acquisition and digital instrumentation fields, it is essential to understand the learning and recognition to acquire data and information of objects to be studied. In recent years, engineering modelling and simulation contribute greatly to the understanding of intelligent learning and recognition problems. The ability to learn is one of the central features of intelligence, which makes it an important concern for both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. In this paper, definitions and modelling aspects of learning are discussed. Fundamentals of learning and recognition and their applications are investigated and described. Illustrations are given to demonstrate the increasing applications of learning and recognition with engineering modelling in data acquisition and digital instrumentation fields.