Leaves and flowers of selected Hibiscus species, used in traditional medicine, were evaluated for antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities. Information on these species is meagre and this study would contribute new and additional knowledge on the bioactivities of the genus. Antioxidant properties (AOP) of six species assessed were total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC), ferric reducing power (FRP), ferrous ion chelating (FIC) ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) activity. Antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of four species were assessed using the modified dopachrome and disc diffusion methods, respectively. Leaves and flowers of Hibiscus tiliaceus showed outstanding AOP. Leaves of species with high TPC and AEAC had low FIC ability and vice versa. Red flowers which yielded the highest TAC also displayed high FIC ability and LPI activity. Leaves of H. tiliaceus had the strongest antityrosinase (AT) activity. With very strong AOP and AT activity, leaves of H. tiliaceus have potentials to be developed into functional food and skin care products. At 1 mg extract/disc, leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa were found to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria of Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. At 2 mg extract/disc, leaves of H. sabdariffa inhibited both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella choleraesuis. This is the first report of leaf extracts of H. sabdariffa inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria. Adding 1 mM of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) to the agar slightly enhanced the antibacterial activity of leaves of H. sabdariffa on Gram-negative bacteria. With a wide spectrum of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, leaves of H. sabdariffa are worthy of further investigation as a natural wide spectrum antibacterial agent.
Wong, S. K.; Lim, Y. Y.; and Chan, E.W.C.
"Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Selected Hibiscus Species,"
Ethnobotanical Leaflets: Vol. 2010
, Article 9.
Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2010/iss7/9