Hypertension is one of the principal health problems in the society and a leading cause of cardio-vascular deaths in various communities worldwide. Over 33 plants and their products have been reported in Nigeria and other West African countries to offer remedies for the management of hypertension. In Esanland of Edo State, Nigeria, 14 endemic plant species distributed in 12 taxonomic families have been identified by various traditional health practitioners as being effective and commonly used to manage hypertension (Psidium guajava, Piper guineense, Loranthus spectobulus, Talinum triangulare, Senna occidentalis, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Carica papaya, Euphorbia hirta, Ocimum gratissimum, Persea americana, Peperomia pellucida, and Vernonia amygdalina). Qualitative phytochemical analyses of the plant parts have revealed the presence of various components of medical importance including tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponin and inulins. Cardiac glycosides were present in all the species studied while alkaloids were present in all except A. sativum, A. cepa, O. gratissimum and P. americana. Saponnins were present in all except the seeds of negro coffee (S. accidentalis), while tannins were present in all except bulbs of garlic (A. sativum). This preliminary study draws attention to the need for further studies of the active principles identified in the reported species for the treatment of hypertension in Esanland in order to understand their mode of action in controlling hypertension.
Mensah, J. K.; Okoli, R. I.; Turay, A. A.; and Ogie-Odia, E. A.
"Phytochemical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used for the Management of Hypertension by Esan people of Edo State, Nigeria,"
Ethnobotanical Leaflets: Vol. 2009
, Article 7.
Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2009/iss10/7