The antifungal activities of the ethanol and aqueous crude extracts of four Nigerian chewing sticks were investigated. Also a preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plants was done. The chewing sticks include Anogeissus schimperi, Distemonanthus benthmianus, Vernonia amagdalina and Xanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. All the plants tested, except Anogeissus Schimperi, displayed antifungal activities, zone of inhibition above the 10 mm standard mark. The ethanol crude extracts of the chewing sticks had a greater zone of inhibition in comparison with the aqueous extract. Among the individual plant extracts, D. benthmianus had the highest antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton metagrophytes. The chewing sticks contain antifungal agents, though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants. Distemonath benthmianus exhibited a better antifungal activity and thus made it more suitable for better dental care. Flavonoid was present in all the plant extracts. Tannin was present in all the plant extract, except that of Anogeissus schimperi. Alkaloids were absent in all the plant extract. The ethanolic extracts had more phytochemical compounds than the aqueous extracts.
Adekunle, A. A. and Odukoya, K. A.
"Antifungal Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Crude Extracts of Four Nigerian Chewing Sticks,"
1, Article 3.
Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2006/iss1/3